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Friday, August 8, 2008

Ultimate htaccess Examples

Heres the actual code that I use when I'm developing sites for clients

This lets google crawl the page, lets me access the whole site (24.205.23.222) without a password, and lets my client access the page WITH a password. It also allows for XHTML and CSS validation! (w3.org)

# ELITE HTACCESS FOR WEBDEVELOPERS
##############################################
AuthName "SiteName Administration"
AuthUserFile /home/sitename.com/.htpasswd
AuthType basic
Require valid-user
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from 24\.205\.23\.222
Allow from w3.org htmlhelp.com
Allow from googlebot.com
Satisfy Any

Each code snippet has been copied from htaccesselite. Additional and detailed info on each htaccess code snippet can be found at askapache.com

NOTE: Most of these snippets can be used with a Files or Filesmatch directive to only apply to certain files.

NOTE: Any htaccess rewrite examples should always begin with:

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /

Apache Documentation: 1.3 | 2.0 | 2.2 | Current

Make any file be a certain filetype (regardless of name or extension)

#Makes image.gif, blah.html, index.cgi all act as php
ForceType application/x-httpd-php

Redirect non-https requests to https server fixing double-login problem and ensuring that htpasswd authorization can only be entered using HTTPS

Additional https/ssl information and Apache SSL in htaccess examples

SSLOptions +StrictRequire
SSLRequireSSL
SSLRequire %{HTTP_HOST} eq "google.com"
ErrorDocument 403 https://google.com

SEO Friendly redirects for bad/old links and moved links

For single moved file

Redirect 301 /d/file.html http://www.htaccesselite.com/r/file.html

For multiple files like a blog/this.php?gh

RedirectMatch 301 /blog(.*) http://www.askapache.com/$1

different domain name

Redirect 301 / http://www.newdomain.com

Require the www

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/robots\.txt$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.example\.com$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]

Require the www without hardcoding

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/robots\.txt$ [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.[a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6} [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ([a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Require no subdomain

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/robots\.txt$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Require no subdomain

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([^\.]+\.[^\.0-9]+)$
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/robots\.txt$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Redirect everyone to different site except 1 IP address (useful for web-development)

ErrorDocument 403 http://www.someothersite.com
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from 24.33.65.6

CHMOD your files

chmod .htpasswd files 640 chmod .htaccess files 644 chmod php files 600 chmod files that you really dont want people to see as 400 NEVER chmod 777, if something requires write access use 766

Variable (mod_env) Magic

Set the Timezone of the server:

SetEnv TZ America/Indianapolis

Set the Server Administrator Email:

SetEnv SERVER_ADMIN webmaste@htaccesselite.com

Turn off the ServerSignature

ServerSignature Off

Add a "en-US" language tag and "text/html; UTF-8" headers without meta tags

Article: Setting Charset in htaccess

Article: Using FilesMatch and Files in htaccess

AddDefaultCharset UTF-8
# Or AddType 'text/html; charset=UTF-8' html
DefaultLanguage en-US

Using the Files Directive


AddDefaultCharset UTF-8
DefaultLanguage en-US

Using the FilesMatch Directive (preferred)


AddDefaultCharset UTF-8
DefaultLanguage en-US

Use a custom php.ini with mod_php or php as a cgi

Article: Custom PHP.ini tips and tricks

When php run as Apache Module (mod_php) in root .htaccess SetEnv PHPRC /location/todir/containing/phpinifile When php run as CGI Place your php.ini file in the dir of your cgi’d php, in this case /cgi-bin/ htaccess might look something like this AddHandler php-cgi .php .htm Action php-cgi /cgi-bin/php5.cgi When cgi’d php is run with wrapper (for FastCGI) You will have a shell wrapper script something like this: #!/bin/sh export PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN=3 exec /user3/x.com/htdocs/cgi-bin/php5.cgi Change To #!/bin/sh export PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN=3 exec /x.com/cgi-bin/php.cgi -c /abs/path/to/php.ini

Securing directories: Remove the ability to execute scripts

Heres a couple different ways I do it

AddHandler cgi-script .php .pl .py .jsp .asp .htm .shtml .sh .cgi
Options -ExecCGI

This is cool, you are basically categorizing all those files that end in those extensions so that they fall under the jurisdiction of the -ExecCGI command, which also means -FollowSymLinks (and the opposite is also true, +ExecCGI also turns on +FollowSymLinks)

Only allow GET and PUT request methods to your server.

Options -ExecCGI -Indexes -All +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} !^(GET|PUT)
RewriteRule .* - [F]

Processing All gif files to be processed through a cgi script

Action image/gif /cgi-bin/filter.cgi

Process request/file depending on the request method

Script PUT /cgi-bin/upload.cgi

Force Files to download, not be displayed in browser

AddType application/octet-stream .avi
AddType application/octet-stream .mpg

Then in your HTML you could just link directly to the file..

And then you will get a pop-up box asking whether you want to save the file or open it.

Show the source code of dynamic files

If you'd rather have .pl, .py, or .cgi files displayed in the browser as source rather than be executed as scripts, simply create a .htaccess file in the relevant directory with the following:

RemoveHandler cgi-script .pl .py .cgi

Dramatically Speed up your site by implementing Caching!

Article: Speed Up Sites with htaccess Caching

# MONTH

Header set Cache-Control "max-age=2592000"


# WEEK

Header set Cache-Control "max-age=604800"


# DAY

Header set Cache-Control "max-age=43200"

Prevent Files image/file hotlinking and bandwidth stealing

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(www\.)?askapache.com/.*$ [NC]
RewriteRule \.(gif|jpg|swf|flv|png)$ http://www.askapache.com/feed.gif [R=302,L]

ErrorDocuments

Article: Additional ErrorDocument Info and Examples

ErrorDocument 404 /favicon.ico
ErrorDocument 403 https://secure.htaccesselite.com
ErrorDocument 404 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 400 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 401 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 403 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 405 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 406 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 409 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 413 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 414 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 500 /cgi-bin/error.php
ErrorDocument 501 /cgi-bin/error.php

Note: You can also do an external link, but don't do an external link to your site or you will cause a loop that will hurt your SEO.

Authentication Magic

Require password for 1 file:


AuthName "Prompt"
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /home/askapache.com/.htpasswd
Require valid-user

Protect multiple files:


AuthName "Development"
AuthUserFile /.htpasswd
AuthType basic
Require valid-user

Example uses of the Allow Directive:

# A (partial) domain-name
Allow from 10.1.0.0/255.255.0.0

# Full IP address
Allow from 10.1.2.3

# More than 1 full IP address
Allow from 192.168.1.104 192.168.1.205

# Partial IP addresses
# first 1 to 3 bytes of IP, for subnet restriction.
Allow from 10.1
Allow from 10 172.20 192.168.2

# network/netmask pair
Allow from 10.1.0.0/255.255.0.0

# network/nnn CIDR specification
Allow from 10.1.0.0/16

# IPv6 addresses and subnets
Allow from 2001:db8::a00:20ff:fea7:ccea
Allow from 2001:db8::a00:20ff:fea7:ccea/10

Using visitor dependent environment variables:

Article: Additional SetEnvIf examples

SetEnvIf User-Agent ^KnockKnock/2\.0 let_me_in
Order Deny,Allow
Deny from all
Allow from env=let_me_in

Allow from apache.org but deny from foo.apache.org

Order Allow,Deny
Allow from apache.org
Deny from foo.apache.org

Allow from IP address with no password prompt, and also allow from non-Ip address with password prompt:

AuthUserFile /home/www/site1-passwd
AuthType Basic
AuthName MySite
Require valid-user
Allow from 172.17.10
Satisfy Any

block access to files during certain hours of the day

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
# If the hour is 16 (4 PM) Then deny all access
RewriteCond %{TIME_HOUR} ^16$
RewriteRule ^.*$ - [F,L]

A good default example .htaccess file

I use this when I start a new site, and uncomment or delete parts of the file depending on the sites needs

# DEFAULT SETTINGS
##############################################
Options +ExecCGI -Indexes
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.htm

### DEFAULTS ###
ServerSignature Off
AddType video/x-flv .flv
AddType application/x-shockwave-flash .swf
AddType image/x-icon .ico
AddDefaultCharset UTF-8
DefaultLanguage en-US
SetEnv TZ America/Indianapolis
SetEnv SERVER_ADMIN webmaster@askapache.com

### FAST-CGI ###
AddHandler fastcgi-script fcgi
AddHandler php-cgi .php
Action php-cgi /cgi-bin/php5-wrapper.fcgi



# HEADERS and CACHING
##############################################
#### CACHING ####
# YEAR

Header set Cache-Control "max-age=2592000"

# WEEK

Header set Cache-Control "max-age=604800"

# 10 minutes

Header set Cache-Control "max-age=600"

# DONT CACHE

Header unset Cache-Control




# REWRITES AND REDIRECTS
##############################################
### SEO REDIRECTS ###
Redirect 301 /2006/uncategorized/htaccesselitecom-aboutus.html http://www.^^SITE^^.^^TLD^^

### REWRITES ###
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /

### WORDPRESS ###
# BEGIN WordPress

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]


# END WordPress



# AUTHENTICATION
##############################################
AuthName "askapache.com"
Require valid-user
AuthUserFile /askapache/.htpasswd
AuthType basic
by John Crowner (apachehtaccess)
evolt.org
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